上海穆弗思设备工程

食品工厂卫生设计原则-DOC44,8.7章卫生排水设计规范

发表时间:2020-02-27 13:56

DOC 44

hygienic design principlesfor food factories

食品工厂卫生设计原则

欧盟LOGO.jpg                                                                                                            EHEDG LOGO.jpg

Contents                                                                                                               Page

1          Introduction........................................................................................................... 5

2          Objectivesand scope............................................................................................6

3          NormativeReferences...........................................................................................6

4          Definitions/ Glossary............................................................................................7

5          Site..........................................................................................................................   21

5.1       Sitelocation............................................................................................................ 21

5.2       Siteplan..................................................................................................................   21

5.3       Site...................................................................................................................... .... 22

5.4       Boundaryfences and walls.................................................................................24

5.5       Controlledsite access......................................................................................... 24

6          HygienicBuilding Design....................................................................................25

6.1       Buildings................................................................................................................. 25

6.2       AdequateSpace for Cleaning, Inspection and Pest Control................... 26

7          InternalDivisions................................................................................................ ....27

7.1       Segregation............................................................................................................. 27

7.1.1     Zoninghazard analysis........................................................................................ 29

7.1.2     Hygienicdesign criteria for zones.....................................................................30

7.1.3     Zonebarriers........................................................................................................... 34

7.2       Storageareas......................................................................................................... . 36

7.3       Personnelareas....................................................................................................... 37

7.4       Cleaningfacilities, equipment and chemicals................................................41

7.5       Foodwashing facilities...........................................................................................41

8          BuildingFabric........................................................................................................ 41

8.1       Foundations............................................................................................................. 41

8.2       PileFoundations.................................................................................................. ....42

8.3       Superstructures....................................................................................................... 43

8.4       SecondarySteel....................................................................................................... 45

8.5       Roofs................................................................................................................... 46

8.6       Floors.................................................................................................................. 51

8.7       Drains.................................................................................................................. 66

8.8       Coving,kerbs, posts and barriers....................................................................... 84

8.9       Walls.................................................................................................................... 94

8.10      Transportdocks.................................................................................................. 99

8.11      Doors................................................................................................................. 101

8.12      Transportationand/or personnel air-locks........................................................ 106

8.13      Windows............................................................................................................ 107

8.14      Ceilings.............................................................................................................. 108

8.15      Insulationand noise reduction.......................................................................... 109

8.16      Stairs,walkways and platforms........................................................................ 110

8.17      Elevators............................................................................................................ 113

8.18      Foodcontact surfaces....................................................................................... 113

9          Services............................................................................................................. 113

9.1       Generalservices................................................................................................ 113

9.2       Electricalinstallations....................................................................................... 116

9.3       Ventilationand temperature control.................................................................. 121

9.4       Processand transport air.................................................................................. 123

9.5       Lighting............................................................................................................. 124

9.6       Water................................................................................................................. 125

9.7       Food andsolid waste......................................................................................... 126

10        Referencesused within the text........................................................................ 128

11        HygienicBuilding Design Checklist................................................................... 129

8.7   Drains排水

Drainage ofeffluents generated in the food production process is a critical requirementfor any building, especially so in relation to food production facilities.Drainage should be considered holistically from a site perspective as the siteand each subsequent level of analysis has potential impact on hygienicoperation.

在食品生产过程中产生的废水排放是任何建筑的关键要素,尤其是与食品生产设施有关的建筑。从现场的角度来看,排水应被视为一个整体,因为现场和随后的每一步骤的分析都对卫生操作有潜在影响。


Thedrainage system can either be a point - or a linear drainage system, or acombination, depending on the actual circumstances and designed in accordancewith EN 12056.

排水系统可以是点式或线性排水系统,也可以是组合式排水系统,具体取决于实际情况,并按照EN12056进行设计。


Applications应用

Internaldrainage splits broadly into 3 general applications:内部排水大致分为三种用途:


Interception of fluids流体截留

The type ofdrainage selected -gully or channel, will depend on the nature of theoperation and its requirements. Channels simplify floor gradients and offerbetter interception than gullies. Ideally drains should be positioned near thewastewater/fluid source with space allowing access. Where drainage is requiredfrom machinery, splashing can be minimised by use of funnels above the drainbody which provide an air gap between the drain and the machine water outlet.

选择的排水类型-地漏或者排水槽,将取决于操作的性质及其要求。排水槽简化了地面坡度,并提供比地漏更好的拦截。理想情况下,排水应靠近废水/流体源,并留有足够的空间。如果需要从机器上排水,可以通过在排水主体上方使用漏斗将飞溅减至最小,漏斗在排水主体和机器出水口之间提供气隙。


The air gap is essential to avoid crosscontamination and backflow from the drainage to the machine气隙对于避免交叉污染和从浊气排水管回流到机器至关重要。
(Figure 8.7.1). To be fully accessible for cleaning and inspection, drainsshould not been positioned under machinery.



(图8.7.1)。为了便于清洁和检查,排水主体不应放置在机器下方。
8.7.1-1.jpg8.7.1-2.jpg


Transport of fluids流体输送

Transportof contaminated water should preferably be achieved in a sealed pipe system.Use of open linear channel drainage systems lined in tiles or resin have beenused in the past but are now no longer seen as a hygienic solution.

污水最好在密封的管道系统中运输。在过去,人们曾使用内衬瓷砖或树脂的明渠排水系统,但现在已不再被视为一种卫生解决方案。

Barrier between zones,processes or rooms在不同卫生等级区域、加工车间或房间之间的屏障

Linearchannel systems can be used to provide a physical barrier to fluids, and can beused to separate dry and wet areas (Figure 8.7.2).

线性排水系统可用于为流体提供物理屏障,并可用于分离干燥和潮湿区域(图8.7.2)。

8.7.2.jpg



Drainage in specificareas: Dry production areas排水在特殊区域的应用:干式生产区域

Drainage indry production areas may be required to facilitate occasional wet cleaning.可能需要在干燥的生产区域做排水设计,以方便偶尔的湿清洁。

The dryproduction can be split into 3 areas:干式生产区域可分为3种情况

Dry production withonly dry cleaning干式生产+干式清洁

In suchareas gullies and channels should be avoided. If drainage is unavoidable, itshould be a sealed, gas tight system with a smooth surface which can be openedby a vacuum handle for access or disinfection (Figure 8.7.3). For additionalprotection against possible aerosol release from drains, a special trappreventing overpressure in the connected drainage piping can be installed.Drains that are used only occasionally should be placed as far away fromhygienic production as possible.

在这些地区,应避免使用地漏和水槽。如果排水是不可避免的,它应该是一个密封的、气密的系统,表面光滑,可以通过真空手柄/或其他方式打开,以便清洗或消毒(图8.7.3)。为了防止可能从排水管释放的气溶胶,可以在连接的排水管道中安装一个防止负压的特殊存水弯。偶尔使用的排水管应尽量远离卫生生产。

Dry production withcontrolled wet cleaning干式生产+可控的湿式清洁

In suchareas channels should be avoided. Gullies should be sealed and gas tight with asmooth surface which can be opened by a vacuum handle for access anddisinfection. For additional protection against possible aerosols release fromthe drain a special trap preventing overpressure in the connected drainagepiping can be installed.
在这些地区应避免使用排水槽。地漏的使用应密封、气密,表面光滑,可用真空手柄/或其他方式打开,以便进入清洗和消毒。为了防止可能从排水管释放的气溶胶,可以在连接的排水管道中安装一个防止负压的特殊存水弯。

Dry production withwet cleaning干式生产+湿式清洁

In suchareas, channels and gullies should have gratings of a high hygienic standard.The floor should have an adequate slope towards drain. Drains should be placedaway from hygienic production areas but close enough to allow efficientdrainage of liquids. Linear channels should preferably be kept shallow andideally placed along a wall.

在这些地区,排水槽和地漏应该有高卫生标准的盖板(防滑要求)。地面应向排水沟有足够的坡度。排水应远离卫生生产区域,但满足有效的收水要求,以便有效地排出液体。线性排水设计较浅为宜,并最好沿墙放置。

8.7.3.jpg


Drainage in different area在不同区域的排水系统

Areas with solid wasteon floors such as meat residues上有固体废物的区域,如肉类残渣

In suchcases the drainage system should have a built-in sediment basket to capturesolid material.   This basket shall besized with respect to the desired hydraulic flow given the expected amount ofwaste and expected emptying frequency of the basket. Size and slope should beincreased to support transport of solid waste. The waste should haveunrestricted access to the drainage system (Figure 8.7.4).

在这种情况下,排水系统应该有一个内置的杂物篮来收集固体物质。考虑到预计的废物量和料筐的预期排空频率,料筐的尺寸应与所需的液压流量有关。应增加尺寸和坡度,以支持固体废物的运输。废物应能不受限制的被排水系统所收集(图8.7.4)。

8.7.4.jpg

Figure 8.7.4 - Exampleof channel with gratings having open sides allowing solid waste into the drain排水槽开放式的盖板可以让固体杂物和废水同时进入水槽并进行收集


Areas with CIP systems有CIP系统的区域

Watershould be directed into the drainage system by a pipeline. Nevertheless toavoid waste water backflow and to protect line hygiene, air gaps are necessary.The volume and temperature of water must be considered when selecting productsand manufacturing materials for the complete drainage system as some materialsmay soften due to heat.

水应通过管道导入排水系统。然而,为了避免废水回流和保护管线卫生,必须有空气间隙。在为整个排水系统选择产品和制造材料时,必须考虑水的体积和温度,因为有些材料可能因热而软化。

Multi-storey buildingswhere drainage is required above ground level底楼以上的多层楼面排水

Thisapplication needs special attention to prevent contaminated water entering thehygienic areas below such as a membrane or similar construction technique.

这种应用需要特别注意防止污染水进入下一楼层的卫生区域,可以使用如防水薄膜或类似的防水施工技术。

Drainagepiping should not be visible in hygienic room below. If unavoidable then thepiping should be double walled or have a leakage indication system, as well asbeing isolated it should be insulated to prevent condensation. Machinery andopen product should not be placed under the piping.

楼下的卫生区域不应看到楼顶的排水管道。如果不可避免,则管道应为双壁管道或具有泄漏指示系统,并应隔离,以防止冷凝。机器和开放式产品不应放置在管道下方。

Pipepenetration through ceilings should be secured against water penetrating tohygienic areas below and made from non-flammable material class A1 according toEN 13 501-1.

根据EN 13501-1的规定,穿过天花板的管道应防止水渗透到下面的卫生区域,并由A1级不易燃材料制成。

Floor drainage,general specification地面排水,通用规范

Floor Draincomponents should be designed in accordance with the EHEDG guidelines (DOC 13)for steel constructions or EN 1672-2 Figure A3, A4, A11, A13 and A14.

地面排水系统组件必须按照EHEDG设计指南进行设计,并符合不锈钢材质要求(13号文件)或者EN1672-2标准种第A3, A4, A11, A13 A14条款。

Of relevanceto drainage products the following hygienic features can be economicallyintegrated into drainage product design:与排水产品相关,以下卫生特性可经济地整合到排水产品设计中:

    continuous welding of joints 接缝为连续型平焊

    radiused and rounded corners转角自带弧度

    drainability 完全可排型

    no crevices or dead spaces没有死角和垃圾堆积

Features ofhygienically poor design and preferred design are shown in Figures 8.7.5 and8.7.6 respectively.8.7.58.7.6分别显示了卫生不良设计和首选设计的特点。


8.7.5.jpg不良设计


卫生设计

8.7.6.jpg



Drainage materials排水件材料

Generally,hygienic production areas should have a drainage system that is manufacturedfrom austenitic stainless steel of a minimum grade EN10088: 1.4301 (AISI 304) for both wet and dry production areas   as well as storage rooms, however thechemical and physical composition of the fluid may require alternativematerials in specific circumstances.  

一般来说,卫生生产区的排水系统应由至少EN10088:1.4301(AISI 304)级奥氏体不锈钢制成,用于干湿生产区和储藏室,然而,在特定情况下,流体的化学和物理成分可能需要其他替代材料。

Wherehygiene is of concern stainless steel to EN10088: 1.4301 (AISI 304) or aboveshould be used. This austenitic family of alloys has good corrosion resistance.Higher grades of stainless steel 1.4401/ 1.4571 (AISI 316L / AISI316Ti) shouldbe used in specific circumstances (chlorine disinfection, salt, etc.).

高卫生要求区域,应使用符合EN10088:1.4301(AISI 304)或以上标准的不锈钢。这种奥氏体合金具有良好的耐腐蚀性。在特殊情况下(氯消毒、盐等),应使用更高等级的不锈钢1.4401/1.4571(AISI316L/AISI316Ti)。

It isimportant to ensure dip pickle passivation of the drainage components post-fabricationhas been carried out as it is described in the EHEDG guidelines (DOC 18).

重要的是确保已按照EHEDG指南(DOC 18)中的说明,对排水部件进行了制造后浸洗钝化。

Hydraulic Capacity排水性能

Flow ratesin gullies or channels should comply with EN 1253, however both gullies andchannels have the useful capability of providing a buffer for short termhydraulic load.

地漏或排水槽中的流速应符合EN 1253的要求,地漏和排水槽都具有为瞬时水力负荷提供缓冲的能力。

Thecapacity of the system should be based on maximum flow rate expected plus anyallowance for change of use in the future. Capacity also depends on inletcharacteristics, such as grating slot size and orientation, and outletcharacteristics, such as trap and debris basket influence. The required flowcapacity for the specific application is required to calculate the dimensionsof the drainage system.系统的排水能力应基于预期的最大流量加上未来使用变化的量。排水能力大小还取决于进水管特性,如盖板结构进水面积和方向;以及排水口特性,如水封和杂物篮的影响。具体应用所需的流量要求,用于计算排水系统的尺寸。

Detailedanalysis should be requested from the equipment manufacturer including peakcapacity in l/s and period of flow.应要求设备制造商进行详细分析,包括峰值容量(l/s)和流量周期。

Direction of flow流动方向

Flow directionshould be from High to Medium hygiene areas. Where possible, High hygiene areadrainage should run in a separate system until the point of external connectionto the sewer. An ideal system allows rodding or jetting access from a pointexternal to the High hygiene area as shown in Figure 8.7.7.流动方向应为从高卫生区到中等卫生区。在可能的情况下,高卫生区域的排水应在一个单独的系统中运行,直到外部连接到下水道。理想的系统允许从高卫生区域外部的一个点进行加压排放,如图8.7.7所示。

8.7.7.JPG


Drainageinfrastructure排水系统的建设

Generallythe drainage system should be positioned as near to the fluid source aspossible while ensuring accessibility for inspection, cleaning and maintenance.通常,排水系统应尽可能靠近流体源,同时确保检查、清洁和维护的可接近性。

Drain position andtraffic排水位和交通运输

Wherepossible eliminate traffic over gullies and channels (Figure 8.7.8). All productionareas with access for trolleys and vehicles must be able to resist appliedloads and turning stresses. In cases where heavy traffic is unavoidable, caremust be taken to ensure correct selection and fastening of gully, channel frameand gratings to ensure stability for the specified load.

在那些可能在地漏和排水槽上方有运输的区域(图8.7.8)。所有可进入叉车和车辆的生产区域必须能够承受施加的荷载和转向应力。在交通繁忙的情况下,必须注意确保正确选择和固定地漏、水槽框架和盖板,以确保在规定荷载下的稳定性。

8.7.8.jpg


Load Classes承重等级

Loadclasses for vertical stress should be in accordance with EN 1253, horizontalstress should be achieved through appropriate installation detail such as solidconstruction and good fastening in the floor.垂直应力的荷载等级应符合EN1253,水平应力应通过适当的安装细节来实现,例如牢固的结构和良好的地板固定。

Gullies地漏

Design of gullies地漏的设计

The gully should have a round body, slopestowards the water trap and must be able to completely drain. The gully musthave a removable water trap that allows full accessibility to the pipe systemfor jetting (cleaning with water jets) and rodding (cleaning via physicalscrappers and brushes, both attached to flexible structures pushed or propelleddown the pipes).地漏主体应为圆形,内部带坡度,使污水流向水封,且必须能够完全排尽污水地漏必须有一个可拆除水封,以便能够完全敞开管道系统,以便喷射(用喷水器清洁)和杆(通过物理刮刀和刷子清洁,两者都柔性材质)。

The size inproduction areas should have a frame of min. 200x200 mm or OD 200 mm to be ableto enable   solid waste collection.Gullies can be designed to fit into specific flooring materials such as tiledfloors (Figure 8.7.9), resin floors (Figure 8.7.10) and vinyl floors (Figure8.7.11).生产区域的收水面积尺寸应至少为200x200 mm或外径200 mm,以便能够收集固体废物。地漏可以设计结合特定地面材料,如瓷砖地面(图8.7.9)、树脂地面(图8.7.10)和乙烯基地面(图8.7.11)。

8.7.9.jpg8.7.11.jpg8.7.10.jpg



Water traps存水弯

Gulliesshould have a removable water trap. Water traps should have no seals under thewaterline and allow easy access for cleaning. When the water trap is removed the drain body can be completely driedout.地漏应该有一个可拆卸型的存水弯。存水弯应在水线下没有密封件,便于清洁。当存水弯被移除时,地漏主体可以完全将污水排尽

Water trapsmust have their water level maintained to prevent foul odours and possible pestentry.存水弯必须保持其水位,以防止恶臭和可能的害虫进入。

Thecapacity of the water trap should be tested in accordance with EN 1253. The waterseal height of the water trap shall be of a minimum of 50 mm in accordance withEN 1253.

存水弯的容量应按照EN1253进行测试。根据EN 1253,存水弯的水封高度至少应为50mm。

Use of a‘P-trap’ (Figure 8.7.12) should be avoided or minimized because:应避免或尽量减少使用“P型弯”(图8.7.12),因为:

    Thereis always retention of polluted water in a P-trap and it is therefore difficultto clean and disinfectP型存水弯中总是有被污染的水滞留,因此很难清洁和消毒

    Thereare areas which are invisible and cannot be checked有些区域不可见,无法检查

    P-trapsdo not create an effective rodent or pest barrier–P型弯不会产生有效的啮齿动物或害虫屏障

    Accessfor rodding and jetting is difficult via the P-trap通过P型存水弯很难进行柔性棒或高压清洗

8.7.12.jpg



Sediment basket杂物篮

Sedimentbaskets are necessary to prevent sediment build-up which may block the drain.They should be removed regularly and should be robust in design as they areoften subject to rough handling. As with water traps, spare sediment basketsshould be kept on-site. Sediment baskets should be chosen with appropriateaperture sizes for the food products manufactured (meat, glass, salads, etc.).

必须使用杂物篮,以防止可能堵塞排水管的沉积物积聚。它们应该能被打开清洗,并且应该是机加工设计型产品,由于经常需要被拿起,表面不应该粗糙。与存水弯一样,应在现场保留备用的杂物篮。应为生产的食品(肉、玻璃、沙拉等)选择适当孔径的杂物篮。

8.7.13.jpg


As thesediment basket is designed to trap particles it also affects flow rate. Thedesign should allow fluids to flow through the sides (Figure 8.7.13), and behydraulically oversized to ensure the required design capacity of the system ismaintained when sediments are present.

由于杂物篮的设计目的是沉淀杂物,因此也会影响流速。设计应允许流体流过侧面(图8.7.13),并加大流体计算,以确保在存在沉积物的同时保持系统所需的排水容量。

Design of channels排水槽的设计

Channels should have removable gratings of amaximum length of 500 mm in order to facilitate removal and enable cleaning.Close attention should be paid to the hygienic attributes of gratings, whichshould be similar to those for gullies.

排水槽应配有标准长度为500 mm的可移动盖板,以便于拆卸和清洁。应密切注意盖板的卫生特性,盖板设计应类似于地漏盖板。

Channels should have a lateral slope towardsthe outlet of the channel (Figure 8.7.15), forming a profile such as a V(Figure 8.7.16) or U (Figure 8.7.17) shape in the base of the channel. Channelsshould have the same constant slope in the longitudinal direction toward theoutlet of the channel of minimum 1 % but preferably more. In areas of highsolid waste, effective drainage requires a larger slope.

排水槽应具有朝向出口的横向坡度(图8.7.15),在水槽底部形成V(图8.7.16)或U(图8.7.17)形状。排水槽在向出口的纵向上应具有相同的恒定坡度,最小坡度为1%,但最好大于1%。在高固体废物区,有效的排水需要更大的坡度。

8.7.15.jpg8.7.19.JPG


If achannel system needs to be assembled on site the channels can be TIG welded bya certified welder and manually pickled, or alternatively assembled by ahygienic joint sealing system. Channel length should be considered if there isthe possibility of thermal expansion.

如果排水槽系统需要在现场组装,则可以由经认证的焊工进行TIG焊接和手动酸洗,也可以由卫生的接头密封系统进行组装。如果存在热膨胀的可能性,应考虑水槽长度。

Visibleedge profiles must be installed so that they are rigid, which can beaccomplished by the thickness of the steel (not less than 1.5 - 2 mm thickness)and the method of installation. The channel frame edge should be filled by thedrainage supplier with a waterproof material to resist vertical and horizontalstress and eliminate areas for bacterial growth.

必须安装可见的边缘支撑,使其具有刚性,这可以通过钢的厚度(不小于1.5-2 mm厚)和安装方法来实现。水槽框架边缘应由排水供应商用柔性材料填充,以抵抗垂直和水平应力,并消除细菌生长区域。

Propersealant quality is important to separate effectively surface of the channel andfloor from the space below tiles/resin and channel.正确的密封胶质量对于有效地将水槽表面与瓷砖/树脂地面之间的空隙分离非常重要。

The shapeof channel must be supported through crossbars during building process toresist deformation caused by hardening concrete or other installationprocedures.铺装过程中,水槽外形必须通过侧肋支撑,以抵抗硬化混凝土或其他安装程序引起的变形。

Channelsshould have access for manual cleaning and allow for complete visualinspection. Narrow slot channels (Figure 8.7.22) should be avoided in areaswith a high hygiene requirement, significant solid waste, or large flow.

排水槽应能进行手动清洁,并允许进行完整的目视检查。在卫生要求高、固体废物严重或流量大的区域,应避免缝隙式水槽的设计(图8.7.22)。


Gratings盖板

Design of gratings盖板的设计

Gratingsshould be stainless steel and have a hygienic pickle passivated orelectropolished surface. Gratings should be removable and easy to clean.Crevices should be avoided and welds minimised. The grate should allow solidwaste to enter unrestricted to the drainage. Examples of hygienic gratings areshown in Figures 8.7.27 and 8.7.28 and unhygienic gratings in Figures 8.7.29, 8.7.30,8.7.31 and 8.7.32.

盖板应为不锈钢材质,并具有卫生的酸洗钝化或电抛光表面。盖板应可拆卸且易于清洁。应避免出现裂缝,并尽量减少焊接。盖板应允许固体废物不受限制地进入排水系统。卫生盖板示例如图8.7.27和8.7.28所示,非卫生盖板示例如图8.7.29、8.7.30、8.7.31和8.7.32所示。

8.7.27.jpg8.7.28.jpg


非卫生等级盖板:

8.7.29.jpg8.7.30.jpg


8.7.31.jpg           8.7.32.jpg


Slip resistance防滑

Generallythe surface of gratings can be rougher than other drainage surfaces in order toprovide slip resistance. Slip resistance should be similar to the surroundingfloor. In the absence of agreed standards on slip resistance it is necessary torequest data from flooring and drainage supplier, and choose products with anequal slip resistance.

一般来说,盖板的表面可以比排水件其他部分的表面略有凹凸,这是确保防滑性能。防滑性能应与周围地面材质相似。在没有商定的防滑标准的情况下,有必要向地面和排水供应商索取数据,并选择具有相同防滑性的产品。

Access covers:检修盖板

Accesscovers for drainage and cleaning wells should be avoided in hygienic areas. Theaccess covers create a hygienic risk and prevent the use of modern pipecleaning nozzles for pipe cleaning.

卫生区域应避免使用排水检修口和清洁井的检修盖。检修盖会造成卫生风险,并阻挡管道清洗喷嘴进行管道清洗。

If accesscovers are unavoidable they must be as small as possible and equipped with areliable and tight seal.如果检修盖不可避免,则检修盖必须尽可能小,并配备可靠和紧密的密封



分享到:
上海穆弗思设备工程有限公司
址:上海市松江区徐塘路88号 电话:021-37788696 邮箱:marketing@multi-flux.com
EHEDG  &
食品工厂卫生排水系统方案
www.pei1.net
微信公众号:沛沂咨询
头条公众号:沛沂咨询